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What parts are widely used in CNC machine tools?

NC machine tools are aimed at the processing of parts and components in the machinery manufacturing industry, which improves the production efficiency and guarantees the uniformity of product quality. Reduced labor intensity and corporate costs. At the same time, it has also promoted the rapid development of China's industry and entered a new stage. So what are the structure and components of CNC machine tools: Let ’s share them one by one. The composition of CNC machine tools is shown in the figure below.

(1) Program preparation and program carrier. NC program is a work instruction for automatic machining of parts by NC machine tools. Based on the process analysis of the part, determine the relative position of the part coordinate system on the machine tool coordinate system, that is, the relative installation position of the part on the machine tool, the size parameters of the relative movement of the tool and the part, the process route or processing sequence of the part processing , Cutting process parameters and auxiliary device movements, etc., to obtain all the movements, dimensions and process parameters of the part, the process route or processing sequence of the part processing, cutting process parameters and auxiliary device movements, etc., to obtain all the movements of the part, Dimensions and process parameters and other processing information, and then the numerical control code composed of text, arrays and symbols, according to the prescribed method and format, compile a numerical control program sheet for part processing. Programming can be done manually or by using an automatic programming computer system outside the CNC machine tool; for more advanced CNC machine tools, it can be programmed directly on its CNC device. The compiled NC program is stored on a storage carrier that is convenient for input to the NC device, such as magnetic card, magnetic disk, etc. Which storage carrier is used depends on the design type of the NC device.

(2) Input device. The function of the input device is that the NC code on the program carrier becomes the corresponding electric pulse signal, which is transmitted and stored in the NC device. Depending on the program storage medium, the input device may be an optoelectronic device such as a reader, a VCR, or a floppy disk drive. Some CNC machine tools do not use any program storage carrier. Instead, the contents of the CNC program list are communicated to the keyboard on the CNC device by manual input (MDI method), or the CNC program is transmitted to the CNC device by a programming computer through communication.
(3) Numerical control device and strong current control device. The NC device is the core of the NC machine tool. It accepts the pulse signals sent by the input device. After the system software or logic circuit of the NC device compiles, transports, and processes the logic, it outputs various signals and instructions to control the various parts of the machine tool. Orderly actions. Among these control signals, the most basic signals are the feed displacement amount, feed direction and speed command of each coordinate axis (that is, the execution part that performs the feed motion) determined by the interpolation operation, and the execution part is driven by the servo drive system. Give exercise. In addition, there are auxiliary speed change, reversing and stop signals of main moving parts, tool command signals for selecting and changing tools, cutting fluid switches, loosening and clamping of workpieces and machine tool parts, and indexing table indexing. Command signal.

The strong electric control device is a control system between the numerical control device and the machine tool and hydraulic components. Its main function is to receive command signals such as the main motion speed change, tool selection and replacement, and auxiliary device actions output from the numerical control device, and directly drive the corresponding electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical components after necessary compilation, logical judgment, and power amplification. Complete the action specified by the instruction component. Switching signals such as the travel switch and monitoring and detection must also be sent to the numerical control device for processing through the strong current control device.
(4) Servo drive system and position detection device. The servo drive system is composed of a servo drive circuit and a servo drive device (such as a servo motor), and the feeding part of the CNC machine tool is composed of the executive parts and mechanical transmission parts on the bed. Feed speed, direction and displacement. Each actuator for feed motion is equipped with a servo drive system. The servo drive system is divided into open loop, semi-closed loop and closed loop. In semi-closed-loop and closed-loop servo drive systems, it is also necessary to use a position detection device to indirectly or directly measure the actual feed displacement of the actuator and compare it with the command displacement to convert the error and enlarge the feed movement of the actuator.

(5) Mechanical parts of machine tools. The mechanical parts of CNC machine tools include main moving parts, feed motion executing parts, working tables, carriages and their transmission parts, and supporting parts such as bed posts, as well as auxiliary devices such as cooling, lubrication, chip removal, indexing and clamping. For CNC machine tools of the machining center type, there are also parts such as a magazine storing the tools and a robot for replacing the tools. The composition of NC machine tool mechanical parts is similar to that of ordinary machine tools, but the transmission mechanism requirements are simpler, with higher requirements in terms of accuracy, rigidity and shock resistance, and their transmission and transmission systems should be convenient to realize automatic control.
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